Descriptive statistics for diagnostic tests.

ConditionPresentationTestReferenceSensitivity [95% CI]Specificity [95% CI]PPV [95% CI]NPV [95% CI]+LR [95% CI]-LR [95% CI]Accuracy %DOR [95% CI]AUC [95% CI]Risk of biasKappa [95% CI]
Knee Osteoarthritis (OA)ACR 3/6 Clinical Criteria Altman et al (1986)0.950.69
Knee Osteoarthritis (OA)ACR 4/6 Clinical Criteria Altman et al (1986)0.840.89
Knee Osteoarthritis (OA)ACR Clinical and Laboratory CriteriaAltman et al (1986)0.920.75
Knee Osteoarthritis (OA)ACR Clinical and Radiographic CriteriaAltman et al (1986)0.910.86
Vascular/Arterial InjuryKnee DislocationAnkle Brachial Index < 0.9Mills et al (2004)1.001.001.00
Vascular/Arterial InjuryKnee DislocationAnkle Brachial Index < 0.9Weinberg et al (2016)0.960.9980.770.0498
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)Acute Without AnaesthesiaAnterior Drawer TestBenjaminse et al (2006)0.49 [0.43-0.45]0.58 [0.39-0.76]1.4 [0.5-4.4]0.7 [0.5-1.0]02 [1-7]
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)Chronic Without AnaesthesiaAnterior Drawer TestBenjaminse et al (2006)0.92 [0.88-0.95]
0.91 [0.87-0.94]8.9 [5.3-15.2]0.1 [0.0-0.5]57 [10-330]
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)With AnaesthesiaAnterior Drawer TestBenjaminse et al (2006)0.77 [0.75-0.80]
0.87 [0.82-0.91]5.9 [0.9-38.2]0.4 [0.2-0.8]19 [4-85]
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)Without AnaesthesiaAnterior Drawer TestBenjaminse et al (2006)0.55 [0.52-0.58]
0.92 [0.90-0.94]7.3 [3.5-15.2]0.5 [0.4-0.6]21 [8-53]
GoutDouble Contour Sign on UltrasoundOgdie et al (2015)0.83 [0.72-0.91]0.76 [0.68-0.83]
GoutDual Energy Computed Tomography (DECT)Lee & Song (2017)0.85 [0.81-0.88] 0.94 [0.93-0.96] 9.882 [6.122-15.95] 0.16 [0.10-0.27] 78.10 [31.14-195.84]0.956
Meniscus/Meniscal TearJoint Line TendernessHegedus et al (2007)0.63 [0.61-0.66]0.77 [0.76-0.79]4.5 [3.8-5.4]0.73 [0.71-0.76]
Meniscus/Meniscal TearJoint Line TendernessSmith et al (2015)0.83 [0.73-0.90]0.83 [0.61-0.94]4.0 [2.1-7.5]0.23 [0.12-0.44]
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)With AnaesthesiaLachman TestBenjaminse et al (2006)0.97 [0.96-0.98]0.93 [0.89-0.96]12.9 [1.5-108.5]0.1 [0.0-0.3]131 [15-1173]
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)Acute Without AnaesthesiaLachman TestBenjaminse et al (2006)0.94 [0.91-0.96]0.97 [0.93-0.99]9.4 [0.4-210]0.1 [0.0-1.1]143 [1-25936]
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)Chronic Without AnaesthesiaLachman TestBenjaminse et al (2006)0.95 [0.91-0.97]0.90 [0.87-0.94]7.1 [1.2-40.2]0.2 [0.1-0.7]38 [2-572]
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)Without AnaesthesiaLachman TestBenjaminse et al (2006)0.85 [0.83-0.87]0.94 [0.92-0.95]10.2 [4.6-22.7]0.2 [0.1-0.3]70 [23-206]
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)Meniscus TearLever (Lelli) TestMassey et al (2017)0.79

0.400.920.1874
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)Isolated ACLLever (Lelli) TestMassey et al (2017)0.82
0.870.960.5783
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)No Meniscus TearLever (Lelli) TestMassey et al (2017)0.88
0.930.950.8189
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)AcuteLever (Lelli) TestMassey et al (2017)0.900.770.930.7187
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)ChronicLever (Lelli) TestMassey et al (2017)0.770.860.950.5079
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)Multi-ligament InjuryLever (Lelli) TestMassey et al (2017)0.860.500.860.5078
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)OverallLever (Lelli) TestMassey et al (2017)0.83

0.800.940.5782
Meniscus/Meniscal TearMcMurray'sHegedus et al (2007)0.75 [0.67-0.73]0.71. [0.69-0.73]4.5 [3.7-5.4]0.73 [0.71-0.76]
Meniscus/Meniscal TearMcMurray'sSmith et al (2015)0.61 [0.45-0.74]0.84 [0.69-0.92]3.2 [1.7-5.9]0.52 [0.34-0.81]
Patellar InstabilityPersistent Lateral Patellar Instability Moving Patellar Apprehension Test Ahmad et al (2009)1.000.880.891.0094.1
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)≤1.5 TeslerMRIPhelan et al (2016)0.87 [0.77-0.94]
0.93 [0.91-0.96]
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)≤3.0 TeslerMRISmith et al (2016)0.92 [0.83-0.96]
0.99 [0.96-1.00]
Knee FractureWithin 7 days of injuryOttawa Knee RuleBachmann et al (2004)0.99 [0.93-1.00]0.49 [0.43-0.51]0.05 [0.02-0.23]0.77 [0.65-0.89]
Acute Extremity Compartment Syndrome (AECS)AcutePainUlmer et al (2002)0.190.970.140.98
Acute Extremity Compartment Syndrome (AECS)AcutePain on Passive Stretch Ulmer et al (2002)0.190.970.140.98
Acute Extremity Compartment Syndrome (AECS)AcuteParaesthesiaUlmer et al (2002)0.130.980.150.98
Acute Extremity Compartment Syndrome (AECS)AcuteParesisUlmer et al (2002)0.130.970.110.98
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)Without AnaesthesiaPivot Shift TestBenjaminse et al (2006)0.24 [0.21-0.27]0.98 [0.96-0.99]8.5 [4.7-15.5]0.9 [0.8-1.0]12 [5-31]
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)With AnaesthesiaPivot Shift TestBenjaminse et al (2006)0.74 [0.71-0.77]
0.99 [0.96-1.00]20.9 [2.8-156.2]0.3 [0.1-0.7]75 [11-518]
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)Chronic Without AnaesthesiaPivot Shift TestBenjaminse et al (2006)0.40 [0.29-0.52]
0.97 [0.95-0.99]7.7 [1.6-36.4]0.8 [0.4-1.4]16 [1-218]
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)Acute Without AnaesthesiaPivot Shift TestBenjaminse et al (2006)0.32 [0.25-0.38]1.00 [0.48-1.00]1.3 [0.1-23.7]1.0 [0.7-1.3]1 [0-32]
Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL)ChronicPosterior DrawerRubinstein et al (1994)0.89 [0.67-0.99]0.98 [0.90-1.00] 50.11 [7.14-351.65] 0.11 [0.03-0.40]Moderate
Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL)ChronicPosterior Sag SignRubinstein et al (1994)0.79 [0.54-0.94]1.00 [0.95-1.00]88.35 [5.54-1409.54]0.28 [0.10-0.51]Moderate
Vascular/Arterial InjuryKnee DislocationPresence of Dorsalis Pedis PulseWeinberg et al (2016)0.980.866.730.0388
Vascular/Arterial InjuryKnee DislocationPresence of Posterior Tibial PulseWeinberg et al (2016)0.920.814.820.0983
Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL)ChronicQuadriceps ActiveRubinstein et al (1994)0.53 [0.29-0.76] 0.96 [0.88-1.00]11.97 [3.32-43.13] 0.50 [0.31-0.79] Moderate
Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL)ChronicQuadriceps ActiveDaniel et al (1988)0.98 [0.87-1.00] 1.00 [0.93-1.00]98.44 [6.24-1553.46] 0.04 [0.01-0.17]High
Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL)ChronicReverse LachmanRubinstein et al (1994)0.63 [0.41-0.81]0.89 [0.79-0.95]5.90 [2.57-13.55]0.41 [0.28-0.75]Moderate
Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL)ChronicReverse Lachman end pointRubinstein et al (1994)0.37 [0.16-0.62]0.89 [0.78-0.96]3.43 [1.32-8.96]0.71 [0.50-1.00]Moderate
Meniscus/Meniscal TearThessaly 20°Smith et al (2015)0.75 [0.53-0.89]0.87 [0.65-0.96]5.6 [1.5-21.0]0.28 [0.11-0.71]
Meniscus/Meniscal TearThessaly 20°Smith et al (2015)0.75 [0.53-0.89]0.87 [0.65-0.96]5.6 [1.5-21.0]0.28 [0.11-0.71]
Posterolateral corner (PLC) injuryVarus stress testHarilainen (1987)0.25
Posterolateral corner (PLC) injuryVarus stress testEllera Gomes (2015)0.831.00
Posterolateral corner (PLC) injuryFrog leg testEllera Gomes (2015)0.920.95
Posterolateral corner (PLC) injuryCombined test, positive supremacyVarus stress combined with frog leg testEllera Gomes (2015)0.900.95
Posterolateral corner (PLC) injuryCombined test, negative supremacyVarus stress combined with frog leg testEllera Gomes (2015)0.801.00
Isolated posterolateral corner (PLC) injuryPatients undergoing knee ligament surgeryDial test used alone (+30, -90)Norris et al (2018)0.20 [0.08-0.39]1.00 [0.92-1.00]1.00 [0.52-1.00]0.70 [0.59-0.80]Infinity [NaN-infinity]0.80 [0.67-0.96]-
Intact posterolateral corner (PLC)Patients undergoing knee ligament surgeryDial test used alone (-30, -90)Norris et al (2018)0.83 [0.69-0.92]0.95 [0.81-0.99]0.95 [0.83-0.99]0.82 [0.67-0.91]16.25 [4.19-63.05]0.18 [0.09-0.33]92.50 [18.44-464.01]
Combined posterolateral corner (PLC) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuryPatients undergoing knee ligament surgeryDial test used alone (+30, +90)Norris et al (2018)0.75 [0.36-0.96]0.58 [0.47-0.69]0.15 [0.06-0.31]0.96 [0.85-0.99]1.80 [1.11-2.89]0.43 [0.13-1.45]4.18 [0.79-22.03]
Combined posterolateral corner (PLC) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuryPatients undergoing knee ligament surgeryDial test used in a cluster (+30, +90, + PCL test, - medial knee tests)Norris et al (2018)0.86 [0.42-0.99]0.98 [0.90-1.00]0.75 [0.36-0.96]0.99 [0.92-1.00]34.29 [8.44-139.24]0.15 [0.02-0.90]237.00 [18.69-3004.76]
Isolated posterolateral corner (PLC) injuryPatients undergoing knee ligament surgeryDial test used in a cluster (+30 +/- 90, - PCL tests, - medial knee tests)Norris et al (2018)0.93 [0.76-0.99]0.98 [0.89-1.00]0.97 [0.80-1.00]0.97 [0.87-0.99]53.20 [7.61-372.08]0.07 [0.02-0.26]784.00 [68.13-9021.39]
Medial knee injuryPatients undergoing knee ligament surgeryDial test used alone (+30, +90)Norris et al (2018)0.50 [0.22-0.78]0.56 [0.44-0.67]0.15 [0.06-0.31]0.88 [0.74-0.95]1.14 [0.61-2.11]0.89 [0.50-1.60]1.27 [0.38-4.31]
Combined anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterolateral corner (PLC) injuryExternal rotation recurvatum test / heel height testCinque et al (2017)0.720.920.860.868.730.310.876
Patellofemoral pain (PFP)Active instability testHaim et al (2006)0.25 [0.17-0.37]1.00 [0.87-1.00)1.00 [0.75-1.00]0.35 [0.25-0.48]Infinity [NaN-infinity]0.8 [0.6-0.9]
Patellofemoral pain (PFP)Patellar tilt testHaim et al (2006)0.43 [0.31-0.55]0.92 [0.75-0.98)0.93 [0.75-0.99]0.40 [0.27-0.53]5.4 [1.4-20.8]0.6 [0.5-0.8]
Patellofemoral pain (PFP)Pain with squattingCook et al (2010)0.91 [0.79-0.96]0.50 [0.31-0.69]0.79 [0.73-0.82]0.74 [0.54-0.87]1.8 [1.3-2.3]0.2 [0.1-0.4]
Patellofemoral pain (PFP)Pain during prolonged sittingCook et al (2010)0.72 [0.58-0.82]0.57 [0.39-0.76]0.77 [0.60-0.84]0.50 [0.37-0.60]1.7 [1.1-2.7]0.5 [0.3-0.8]
Patellofemoral pain (PFP)Pain with stair climbingCook et al (2010)0.75 [0.62-0.85]0.43 [0.25-0.61]0.73 [0.66-0.79]0.46 [0.30-0.60]1.3 [1.0-1.9]0.6 [0.0-1.1]
Patellofemoral pain (PFP)Clarke's test (patellofemoral grinding test)Nijs et al (2006)0.48 [0.31-0.67]0.75 [0.55-0.89]0.68 [0.45-0.85]0.57 [0.40-0.73]1.9 [1.1-3.6]0.7 [0.4-1.3]
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)MRI high quality studies onlyLever test (Lelli)Reiman et al (2018)0.77 [0.55-0.90]0.91 [0.55-0.99]13.1 [1.9-52.4]0.28 [0.14-0.46]
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)SurgeryLever test (Lelli)Reiman et al (2018)0.55 [0.22-0.84]0.89 [0.44-0.99]9.2 [0.7-46.1]0.58 [0.18-1.28]
Medial knee injuryPatients undergoing knee ligament surgeryDial test used in a cluster (+30, + 90, + medial knee test, +/- - PCL tests)Norris et al (2018)0.60 [0.27-0.86]0.97 [0.90-1.00]0.75 [0.36-0.96]0.95 [0.87-0.98]23.10 [5.37-99.31]0.41 [0.19-0.88]56.25 [8.50-372.38]
The data presented is based on highest quality studies reporting descriptive statistics.